DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES
PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
The following summary of the material terms of our securities is not intended to be a complete summary of the rights and preferences of such securities, and is qualified by reference to our restated certificate of incorporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), our restated bylaws (the “Bylaws”), the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreements and the Warrant Agreement, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We urge to you read each of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws, the Registration Rights Agreement and the Warrant Agreement in their entirety for a complete description of the rights and preferences of our securities.
The total amount of our authorized share capital consists of 500,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.00001 per share and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.00001 per share.
Each holder of common stock is entitled to one (1) vote for each share of common stock held of record by such holder on all matters voted upon by our stockholders; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required in the Certificate of Incorporation or by applicable law, the holders of common stock are not entitled to vote on any amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of preferred stock if the holders of such affected series are entitled, either separately or together with the holders of one or more other such series, to vote thereon pursuant to our Certificate of Incorporation (including any certificate of designation relating to any series of preferred stock) or pursuant to the DGCL.
Subject to any other provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, as it may be amended from time to time, holders of shares of common stock are entitled to receive ratably, in proportion to the number of shares of common stock held by them, such dividends and other distributions in cash, stock or property of our company when, as and if declared thereon by the Board from time to time out of assets or funds of our company legally available therefor.
Rights upon liquidation.
Subject to the rights of holders of preferred stock, if any, in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, whether voluntary or involuntary, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and any other payments required by law and amounts payable upon shares of preferred stock ranking senior to the shares of common stock upon such dissolution, liquidation or winding-up, if any, our remaining net assets will be distributed to the holders of shares of common stock and the holders of shares of any other class or series ranking equally with the shares of common stock upon such dissolution, liquidation or winding-up, equally on a per-share basis.
No holder of shares of common stock is entitled to preemptive or subscription rights contained in the Certificate of Incorporation or in the Bylaws. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock will be subject to those of the holders of any shares of preferred stock that we may issue in the future.
The Board has the authority to issue shares of preferred stock from time to time on terms it may determine, to divide shares of preferred stock into one or more series and to fix the designations, preferences, privileges, and restrictions of preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preference, sinking fund terms, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of decreasing the trading price of common stock, restricting dividends on our capital stock, diluting the voting power of the common stock, impairing the liquidation rights of our capital stock, or delaying or preventing a change in control of our company.
Election of Directors and Vacancies
Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances and the terms and conditions of the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, the number of directors of the Board shall be fixed solely and exclusively by resolution duly adopted from time to time by the Board, but initially consist of twelve (12) directors, which are divided into three (3) classes, designated Class I, II and III, with Class I consisting of four (4) directors, Class II consisting of four (4) directors and Class III consisting of four (4) directors through a transition period not to last longer than six months following the consummation of the Business Combination. Following this transition period, the Board will consist of nine directors.
Under the Bylaws, at all meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors, a plurality of the votes properly cast is sufficient to elect such directors to the Board.
Except as the DGCL or the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement may otherwise require and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of preferred stock, in the interim between annual meetings of stockholders or special meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors and/or the removal of one or more directors and the filling of any vacancy in that connection, newly created directorships and any vacancies on the Board, including unfilled vacancies resulting from the removal of directors, may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. All directors hold office until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors have been elected and qualified. A director elected or appointed to fill a vacancy resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a director or a newly created directorship will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the new directorship was created or the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor has been elected and qualified.
Subject to the rights, if any, of any series of preferred stock, any director may be removed from office only with cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than 2/3 of our outstanding voting stock (as defined below) then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Any such director proposed to be removed from office is entitled to advance written notice as described in the Proposed Certificate of Incorporation.
In addition to the powers and authorities hereinbefore or by statute expressly conferred upon them, the directors are hereby empowered to exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by us, subject, nevertheless, to the provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation and to any Bylaws adopted and in effect from time to time; provided, however, that no Bylaw so adopted will invalidate any prior act of the directors which would have been valid if such Bylaw had not been adopted.
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, any director elected pursuant to the right, if any, of the holders of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances will serve for such term or terms and pursuant to such other provisions as specified in the relevant certificate of designations related to the preferred stock.
The holders of a majority of the voting power of the capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise required by law or provided by the Certificate of Incorporation. If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of a majority of the voting power present in person or represented by proxy have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting is given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
Anti-takeover Effects of the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws
The Certificate of Incorporation and the Proposed Bylaws contain provisions that may delay, defer or discourage another party from acquiring control of us. We expect that these provisions, which are summarized below, will discourage coercive takeover practices or inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with the board of directors, which we believe may result in an improvement of the terms of any such acquisition in favor of our stockholders. However, they also give the board of directors the power to discourage acquisitions that some stockholders may favor.
Authorized But Unissued Capital Stock
Delaware law does not require stockholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares. However, the listing requirements of the NYSE, which would apply if and so long as the common stock (or units or warrants) remains listed on the NYSE, require stockholder approval of certain issuances equal to or exceeding 20% of the then-outstanding voting power or then-outstanding number of shares of common stock. Additional shares that may be issued in the future may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions.
One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock may be to enable the Board to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise and thereby protect the continuity of management and possibly deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Special Meeting, Action by Written Consent and Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals
Unless otherwise required by law, and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of preferred stock, special meetings of our stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, may be called only by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the Lead Independent Director (as defined in the Bylaws), the President, or the Board acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Board and may not be called by the stockholders or any other person or persons. Such special meeting shall have, for the purposes of the Bylaws or otherwise, all the force and effect of an annual meeting. Unless otherwise required by law, written notice of a special meeting of stockholders, stating the time, place and purpose or purposes thereof, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, not less than ten (10) or more than 60 days before the date fixed for the meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders is limited to the purposes stated in the notice.
The Bylaws also provide that unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board or of such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing
or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee.
In addition, the Bylaws require advance notice procedures for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders, including the nomination of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider the proposals specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the board of directors, or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered a timely written notice in proper form to our secretary, of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions might discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company. Furthermore, the DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.
These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting any stockholder actions, even if they are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.
Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
The DGCL provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding stock entitled to vote on amendments to a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws is required to approve such amendment, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage.
The Certificate of Incorporation provides that the provisions therein may be amended, altered, repealed or rescinded only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66-2/3% in voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote thereon; provided, however, that if at least 66-2/3% of the entire Board have approved such amendment or repeal of any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, then such amendment or repeal shall only require the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote on such amendment or repeal, voting as a single class.
The Bylaws may be amended or repealed (A) by the affirmative vote of a majority of the entire Board then in office (subject to any bylaw requiring the affirmative vote of a larger percentage of the members of the Board) or (B) without the approval of the Board, by the affirmative vote of the holders of 66-2/3% of our outstanding voting stock entitled to vote on such amendment or repeal, voting as a single class, provided that if 66-2/3% of the entire Board recommends that stockholders approve such amendment or repeal at such meeting of stockholders, then such amendment or repeal shall only require the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote on such amendment or repeal, voting as a single class.
Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute
Section 203 of the DGCL provides that if a person acquires 15% or more of the voting stock of a Delaware corporation, such person becomes an “interested stockholder” and may not engage in certain “Business Combinations” with the corporation for a period of three years from the time such person acquired 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock, unless:
(1) the board of directors approves the acquisition of stock or the merger transaction before the time that the person becomes an interested stockholder;
(2) the interested stockholder owns at least 85% of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation at the time the merger transaction commences (excluding voting stock owned by directors who are also officers and certain employee stock plans); or
(3) the merger transaction is approved by the board of directors and at a meeting of stockholders, not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of 2/3 of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder. A Delaware corporation may elect in its certificate of incorporation or bylaws not to be governed by this particular Delaware law.
Generally, a “Business Combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with that person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or within the previous three years owned, 15% or more of our voting stock.
Under certain circumstances, this provision will make it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various Business Combinations with a corporation for a three-year period. This provision may encourage companies interested in acquiring our company to negotiate in advance with our board of directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if our board of directors approves either the Business Combination or the transaction which results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. These provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our board of directors and may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions which stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors
The Certificate of Incorporation limits the liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, and the Bylaws provide that we will indemnify them to the fullest extent permitted by such law. We have entered and expect to continue to enter into agreements to indemnify our directors, executive officers and other employees as determined by our board of directors. Under the terms of such indemnification agreements, we are required to indemnify each of our directors and officers, to the fullest extent permitted by the laws of the state of Delaware, if the basis of the indemnitee’s involvement was by reason of the fact that the indemnitee is or was a director or officer of our company or any of our subsidiaries or was serving at our request in an official capacity for another entity. We must indemnify our officers and directors against all reasonable fees, expenses, charges and other costs of any type or nature whatsoever, including any and all expenses and obligations paid or incurred in connection with investigating, defending, being a witness in, participating in (including on appeal), or preparing to defend, be a witness or participate in any completed, actual, pending or threatened action, suit, claim or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, or establishing or enforcing a right to indemnification under the indemnification agreement.
Exclusive Jurisdiction of Certain Actions
The Certificate of Incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, that derivative actions brought in the name of our company, actions against directors, officers and employees for breach of fiduciary duty, actions asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws, actions to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws and actions asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
In addition, the Bylaws require that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States is the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any action asserting a claim arising under the Securities Act.